8.6: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids (2023)

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    Learning Objectives
    • To understand the basic properties separating Metals from Nonmetals and Metalloids

    An element is the simplest form of matter that cannot be split into simpler substances or built from simpler substances by any ordinary chemical or physical method. There are 118 elements known to us, out of which 92 are naturally occurring, while the rest have been prepared artificially. Elements are further classified into metals, non-metals, and metalloids based on their properties, which are correlated with their placement in the periodic table.

    Metallic Elements Nonmetallic elements
    Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Characteristic properties of metallic and non-metallic elements:
    Distinguishing luster (shine) Non-lustrous, various colors
    Malleable and ductile (flexible) as solids Brittle, hard or soft
    Conduct heat and electricity Poor conductors
    Metallic oxides are basic, ionic Nonmetallic oxides are acidic, covalent
    Form cations in aqueous solution Form anions, oxyanions in aqueous solution

    With the exception of hydrogen, all elements that form positive ions by losing electrons during chemical reactions are called metals. Thus metals are electropositive elements with relatively low ionization energies. They are characterized by bright luster, hardness, ability to resonate sound and are excellent conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are solids under normal conditions except for Mercury.

    Physical Properties of Metals

    Metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity. Other properties include:

    • State: Metals are solids at room temperature with the exception of mercury, which is liquid at room temperature (Gallium is liquid on hot days).
    • Luster: Metals have the quality of reflecting light from their surface and can be polished e.g., gold, silver and copper.
    • Malleability: Metals have the ability to withstand hammering and can be made into thin sheets known as foils. For example, a sugar cube sized chunk of gold can be pounded into a thin sheet that will cover a football field.
    • Ductility: Metals can be drawn into wires. For example, 100 g of silver can be drawn into a thin wire about 200 meters long.
    • Hardness: All metals are hard except sodium and potassium, which are soft and can be cut with a knife.
    • Valency: Metals typically have 1 to 3 electrons in the outermost shell of their atoms.
    • Conduction: Metals are good conductors because they have free electrons. Silver and copper are the two best conductors of heat and electricity. Lead is the poorest conductor of heat. Bismuth, mercury and iron are also poor conductors
    • Density: Metals have high density and are very heavy. Iridium and osmium have the highest densities whereas lithium has the lowest density.
    • Melting and Boiling Points: Metals have high melting and boiling points. Tungsten has the highest melting and boiling points whereas mercury has the lowest. Sodium and potassium also have low melting points.

    Chemical Properties of Metals

    Metals are electropositive elements that generally form basic or amphoteric oxides with oxygen. Other chemical properties include:

    (Video) Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids - Properties - Where on the Periodic Table?

    • Electropositive Character: Metals tend to have low ionization energies, and typically lose electrons (i.e. are oxidized) when they undergo chemical reactions They normally do not accept electrons. For example:
      • Alkali metals are always 1+ (lose the electron in s subshell)
      • Alkaline earth metals are always 2+ (lose both electrons in s subshell)
      • Transition metal ions do not follow an obvious pattern, 2+ is common (lose both electrons in s subshell), and 1+ and 3+ are also observed

    \[\ce{Na^0 \rightarrow Na^+ + e^{-}} \label{1.1} \]

    \[\ce{Mg^0 \rightarrow Mg^{2+} + 2e^{-}} \label{1.2} \]

    \[\ce{Al^0 \rightarrow Al^{3+} + 3e^{-}} \label{1.3} \]

    Compounds of metals with non-metals tend to be ionic in nature. Most metal oxides are basic oxides and dissolve in water to form metal hydroxides:

    \[\ce{Na2O(s) + H2O(l) \rightarrow 2NaOH(aq)}\label{1.4} \]

    \[\ce{CaO(s) + H2O(l) \rightarrow Ca(OH)2(aq)} \label{1.5} \]

    Metal oxides exhibit their basic chemical nature by reacting with acids to form metal salts and water:

    \[\ce{MgO(s) + HCl(aq) \rightarrow MgCl2(aq) + H2O(l)} \label{1.6} \]

    \[\ce{NiO(s) + H2SO4(aq) \rightarrow NiSO4(aq) + H2O(l)} \label{1.7} \]

    Example \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    What is the chemical formula for aluminum oxide?

    Solution

    Al has a 3+ charge, the oxide ion is \(O^{2-}\), thus \(Al_2O_3\).

    (Video) Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids TEKS 6.6A - End of Year Review
    Example \(\PageIndex{2}\)

    Would you expect it to be solid, liquid or gas at room temperature?

    Solutions

    Oxides of metals are characteristically solid at room temperature

    Example \(\PageIndex{3}\)

    Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction of aluminum oxide with nitric acid:

    (Video) TEK 8.5C Metals, Nonmetals

    Solution
    Metal oxide + acid -> salt + water

    \[\ce{Al2O3(s) + 6HNO3(aq) \rightarrow 2Al(NO3)3(aq) + 3H2O(l)} \nonumber \]

    Nonmetals

    Elements that tend to gain electrons to form anions during chemical reactions are called non-metals. These are electronegative elements with high ionization energies. They are non-lustrous, brittle and poor conductors of heat and electricity (except graphite). Non-metals can be gases, liquids or solids.

    Physical Properties of Nonmetals

    • Physical State: Most of the non-metals exist in two of the three states of matter at room temperature: gases (oxygen) and solids (carbon). Only bromine exists as a liquid at room temperature.
    • Non-Malleable and Ductile: Non-metals are very brittle, and cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets.
    • Conduction: They are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
    • Luster: These have no metallic luster and do not reflect light.
    • Melting and Boiling Points: The melting points of non-metals are generally lower than metals, but are highly variable.
    • Seven non-metals exist under standard conditions as diatomic molecules: \(\ce{H2(g)}\), \(\ce{N2(g)}\), \(\ce{O2(g)}\), \(\ce{F2(g)}\), \(\ce{Cl2(g)}\), \(\ce{Br2(l)}\), \(\ce{I2(s)}\).

    Chemical Properties of Nonmetals

    Non-metals have a tendency to gain or share electrons with other atoms. They are electronegative in character. Nonmetals, when reacting with metals, tend to gain electrons (typically attaining noble gas electron configuration) and become anions:

    \[\ce{3Br2(l) + 2Al(s) \rightarrow 2AlBr3(s)} \nonumber \]

    Compounds composed entirely of nonmetals are covalent substances. They generally form acidic or neutral oxides with oxygen that that dissolve in water to form acids:

    \[\ce{CO2(g) + H2O(l)} \rightarrow \underset{\text{carbonic acid}}{\ce{H2CO3(aq)}} \nonumber \]

    (Video) Metals Nonmetals and Metalloids

    As you may know, carbonated water is slightly acidic (carbonic acid).

    Nonmetal oxides can combine with bases to form salts.

    \[\ce{CO2(g) + 2NaOH(aq) \rightarrow Na2CO3(aq) + H2O(l)} \nonumber \]

    Metalloids have properties intermediate between the metals and nonmetals. Metalloids are useful in the semiconductor industry. Metalloids are all solid at room temperature. They can form alloys with other metals. Some metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, can act as electrical conductors under the right conditions, thus they are called semiconductors. Silicon for example appears lustrous, but is not malleable nor ductile (it is brittle - a characteristic of some nonmetals). It is a much poorer conductor of heat and electricity than the metals. The physical properties of metalloids tend to be metallic, but their chemical properties tend to be non-metallic. The oxidation number of an element in this group can range from +5 to -2, depending on the group in which it is located.

    Table \(\PageIndex{2}\): Elements categorized into metals, non-metals and metalloids.
    Metals Non-metals Metalloids
    Gold Oxygen Silicon
    Silver Carbon Boron
    Copper Hydrogen Arsenic
    Iron Nitrogen Antimony
    Mercury Sulfur Germanium
    Zinc Phosphorus

    Trends in Metallic and Nonmetallic Character

    Metallic character is strongest for the elements in the leftmost part of the periodic table, and tends to decrease as we move to the right in any period (nonmetallic character increases with increasing electronegativity and ionization energy values). Within any group of elements (columns), the metallic character increases from top to bottom (the electronegativity and ionization energy values generally decrease as we move down a group). This general trend is not necessarily observed with the transition metals.

    8.6: Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids (1)

    Contributors and Attributions

    FAQs

    How many metals and nonmetals and metalloids are there out of 118 elements? ›

    The total number of elements present in the modern periodic table is 118. The number of non-metals is 18. The number of metalloids is 7 and the number of metals is 93.

    Which are the metals nonmetals and metalloids nonmetals? ›

    The metals are to the left of the line (except for hydrogen, which is a nonmetal), the nonmetals are to the right of the line, and the elements immediately adjacent to the line are the metalloids. When elements combine to form compounds, there are two major types of bonding that can result.

    What are metalloids answers? ›

    : an element intermediate in properties between the typical metals and nonmetals. : a nonmetal that can combine with a metal to form an alloy.

    What are 5 metals nonmetals and metalloids? ›

    Five common metals are copper, lead, tin, nickel, and zinc. Four common nonmetals are sulfur nitrogen, selenium, and bromine. The seven metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, and polonium.

    Are there 9 metalloids in the periodic table? ›

    The six commonly recognised metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. Five elements are less frequently so classified: carbon, aluminium, selenium, polonium and astatine.

    Are there 118 elements and 89 are metals? ›

    At present, there are 118 elements in the modern periodic table. Out of 118 elements the No. of metals=89, No. of non-metals =22, & metalloids=7.

    How many elements are both metals and non-metals metalloids? ›

    The elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals are called metalloids. Complete answer: The total number of elements in the periodic table is \[118\].

    What are the 8 non-metals? ›

    Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, arsenic and selenium are the non-metallic elements in the periodic table.

    What are 10 examples of metal non metal metalloids? ›

    Metalloids
    MetalsNon-metalsMetalloids
    SilverCarbonBoron
    CopperHydrogenArsenic
    IronNitrogenAntimony
    MercurySulfurGermanium
    2 more rows
    Sep 16, 2022

    What are 7 examples of metalloids? ›

    Boron, germanium, silicon, antimony, arsenic, tellurium and pollanium are the seven most widely recognized metalloids.

    What are 5 examples of non metals? ›

    Non-metallic elements in the periodic table include hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, sulphur, silicon, boron, tellurium and selenium. They also include halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine) and noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon).

    What are 3 examples of metalloids? ›

    Only a few elements are metalloids such as Germanium , Silicon , Arsenic , Antimony , and Tellurium .

    What are 6 common metalloids? ›

    Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, tellurium, and antimony are all generally accepted as being metalloid elements, and as such, will be the focus of this article.

    What are 2 examples of metalloids? ›

    Arsenic and antimony are the examples of metalloids.

    What are the 10 example of metal? ›

    Examples of metals are:
    • Lithium ( )
    • Magnesium ( )
    • Aluminum ( )
    • Titanium ( )
    • Iron ( )
    • Cobalt ( )
    • Nickel ( )
    • Copper ( )

    Are there 7 or 8 metalloids? ›

    Metalloids are the smallest class of elements, containing just six members: boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and tellurium (Te). Metalloids have some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals.

    Are there 6 or 8 metalloids? ›

    A series of six elements called the metalloids separate the metals from the nonmetals in the periodic table. The metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium.

    Are there 8 or 9 metalloids? ›

    The most agreed-upon set of metalloids includes boron, silicon, arsenic, germanium, antimony, and tellurium. After these six, there is no agreed-upon final number, and some researchers identify up to 9 or 11 metalloid elements.

    Will there be a 119th element? ›

    Between the two labs, scientists are confident that 119 and 120 will appear somewhere within about 5 years. If you look backwards over several decades people have made roughly one new element maybe every 3 years—until now. It's the next 5 years that worry people.

    Why are elements 84 89 so unstable? ›

    Therefore, all elements above are unstable because of repulsion forces between protons.

    Are there 92 metals? ›

    This is a list of metals in order of increasing atomic number.
    ...
    List of Metals.
    NUMBERSYMBOLELEMENT
    89AcActinium
    90ThThorium
    91PaProtactinium
    92UUranium
    88 more rows
    Sep 3, 2014

    Are the first 20 elements metals non-metals or metalloids? ›

    Lithium, Beryllium, Sodium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Potassium, and Calcium are metals in the first twenty elements. Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Chlorine, and Argon are the non-metals in the first twenty elements.

    How many elements are in metalloids? ›

    Summary. There are six elements commonly recognized as metalloids.

    What is the difference of metal and non metal and metalloids? ›

    Metals: Metals are highly ductile and can be drawn into wire without breaking. Nonmetals: Nonmetals are not very ductile and cannot be drawn into wire without breaking. Metalloids: Some metalloids are ductile, while others are not.

    What are 8 example of metals? ›

    The exceptional metals are Sodium ( Na), Potassium ( K ) and Mercury. The metals like Sodium ( Na) and Potassium ( K ) are easily cut with the help of a knife. Other examples of metals are iron, copper, silver, aluminum, calcium, gold etc.

    Are there 22 non-metals? ›

    In modern periodic table there are 22 non-metals in which there are 11 gases, 1 liquid and 10 solid. Bromine occurs in the state of liquid and hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine etc are found in gaseous forms. But carbon, sulphur, phosphorous, iodine etc solid non-metals.

    What are the 17 non-metal elements? ›

    The 17 nonmetal elements are: hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, argon, selenium, bromine, krypton, iodine, xenon, and radon.

    What are the 7 non metalloids? ›

    After the nonmetallic elements are classified as either noble gases, halogens or metalloids (following), the remaining seven nonmetals are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur and selenium.

    What are 10 metalloids? ›

    Copper, Sulphur, Aluminium, Oxygen, Silicon, Nitrogen, Germanium, Mercury, Chlorine, and Sodium.

    What are the 15 types of non metals? ›

    In the above table nonmetal elements are H,He,C,N,O,F,Ne,P,S,Cl,Ar,Se,Br,Kr,I,Xe,At and Rn.

    What are the top 5 metalloids? ›

    The elements most often regarded as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium.

    How many elements are metals? ›

    There are about 70 metals out of 92 natural elements in the periodic table.

    What objects are metalloids? ›

    What elements are metalloids? The elements that are generally considered metalloids include boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Other elements such as selenium and polonium are sometimes included as well.

    What are 10 common nonmetals? ›

    Seventeen elements are generally classified as nonmetals; most are gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon, krypton, xenon and radon); one is a liquid (bromine); and a few are solids (carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, and iodine).

    What are the main types of metals? ›

    Metals can be divided into two main groups: ferrous metals are those which contain iron and non-ferrous metals that are those which contain no iron. Pure Iron is of little use as an engineering material because it is too soft and ductile.

    What are five example of metals? ›

    Five Metals
    • Iron.
    • Uranium.
    • Sodium.
    • Aluminum.
    • Calcium.
    Feb 3, 2020

    What are the five example of metal? ›

    Examples of metals are aluminium, copper, iron, tin, gold, lead, silver, titanium, uranium, and zinc. Well-known alloys include bronze and steel. The study of metals is called metallurgy.

    What are examples of metals? ›

    Examples of metal elements include iron, copper, silver, mercury, lead, aluminum, gold, platinum, zinc, nickel and tin.

    Is oxygen A metalloid? ›

    Metalloids are all solid at room temperature. Some metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, can act as electrical conductors under the right conditions, thus they are called semi-conductors.
    ...
    Metalloids.
    MetalsNon-metalsMetalloids
    GoldOxygenSilicon
    SilverCarbonBoron
    CopperHydrogenArsenic
    IronNitrogenAntimony
    2 more rows
    Sep 8, 2020

    Which group 13 elements are metalloids? ›

    • The group of elements which shows properties of both metal and nonmetals are known as metalloids.
    • Metalloids consists of elements Boron , Silicon , Germanium , Arsenic , Antimony , and Tellurium .
    • Group 13 is also known as Boron group.

    Where are the 7 metalloids in the periodic table? ›

    The elements classified as metalloids are - boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium (and sometimes bismuth, polonium, and astatine). These elements occur along a slanted line between Group 13 and Group 16/17/18 of the periodic table, separating the metal elements from the nonmetal elements.

    What is metal made of? ›

    What Are Metals Made up of? Metals are made up of atomic materials such as electrons, neutrons, and protons. Atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by the number of protons they contain. Metals comprise about 25% of the earth's crust.

    Is Diamond a metal? ›

    Diamond is not a metal in anyway its just an allotrope of carbon. It does not show any physical properties or chemical properties of metals like electrical conductivity, malleability, ductility, reaction with acids or salts etc.

    Is wood a non-metal? ›

    Wood: While it seems obvious, wood is a non-metallic material that sees heavy use in the construction industry. Wood still makes up furniture, home constructions, bridges, and innumerable smaller applications.

    What are the 7 major metals? ›

    Although almost all metals have unique uses, the “major metals”, which we define as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni), are those that are employed most widely and in the largest quantities: the annual production of these metals constitutes more than 98% by mass ...

    What are the 20 metals and 10 non-metals? ›

    Metals in the first twenty elements are Lithium, Beryllium, Sodium, magnesium, Aluminum, Potassium, and calcium. Now the non-metals in the first twenty elements are Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Chlorine, and Argon.

    What are the 20 metals? ›

    The metals list which makes up the periodic table includes iron, lead, gold, aluminum, platinum, uranium, zinc, lithium, sodium, tin, silver, etc. The nonmetals list which makes up the periodic table includes hydrogen, helium, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, radon, neon, other halogens, and noble gases etc.

    How many metals are in 118 elements? ›

    Around 95 of the 118 elements in the periodic table are metals (or are likely to be such).

    How many out of 118 are non metals? ›

    Of the 118 known elements no more than about 20% are regarded as nonmetals.

    How many non metalloids are there in 118 elements? ›

    Out of the total 118 elements in the modern periodic table, 18 are non-metals, 7 are metalloids and 93 are metals.

    How many elements are there in 118 elements? ›

    There are 118 Elements in the Period Table. Each of them has a different property and atomic number. Scroll down to learn more about the Periodic Table, its features, Symbols, Derivations of Symbols, Valency of Elements, Atomic numbers, and other information.

    Is there a 119th element? ›

    Fusion requires several milligrams of the target element, and producing enough einsteinium (element 99) to make element 119 is impossible with today's technology.

    What are the 22 nonmetals? ›

    In the above table nonmetal elements are H,He,C,N,O,F,Ne,P,S,Cl,Ar,Se,Br,Kr,I,Xe,At and Rn.

    Are there 1,000 elements? ›

    At present there are 118.

    Are there 17 or 22 non-metals? ›

    Seventeen elements are generally classified as nonmetals; most are gases (hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon, krypton, xenon and radon); one is a liquid (bromine); and a few are solids (carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, selenium, and iodine).

    What are the first 20 non-metals? ›

    Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Chlorine, and Argon are the non-metals in the first twenty elements.

    Are there 20 non-metals in periodic table? ›

    So the metals and non-metals are as follows: Metals in the first twenty elements are Lithium, Beryllium, Sodium, magnesium, Aluminum, Potassium, and calcium. Now the non-metals in the first twenty elements are Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, Neon, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Chlorine, and Argon.

    Are metalloids 7 or 8? ›

    Metalloids can be defined as chemical elements whose physical and chemical properties fall in between the metal and non-metal categories. Boron, germanium, silicon, antimony, arsenic, tellurium and pollanium are the seven most widely recognized metalloids.

    Are there 6 or 7 metalloids? ›

    The elements most often regarded as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. Other sources may subtract from this list, add a varying number of other elements, or both.

    Are there 112 or 118 elements? ›

    The Periodic Table is made up of 118 Elements.

    Are there 114 or 118 elements? ›

    This list contains the 118 elements of chemistry. For chemistry students and teachers: The tabular chart on the right is arranged by Atomic number. The first chemical element is Hydrogen and the last is Ununoctium.

    How many elements exist? ›

    Since then, the periodic table has evolved to reflect over 150 years of scientific development and understanding in chemistry and physics. Today, with 118 known elements, it is widely regarded as one of the most significant achievements in science.

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